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Following questions and answers are all new published by Amazon Official Exam Center: http://www.lead2pass.com/aws-certified-solutions-architect-associate.html

QUESTION 226
What are characteristics of Amazon S3? Choose 2 answers

A.    S3 allows you to store objects of virtually unlimited size.
B.    S3 offers Provisioned IOPS.
C.    S3 allows you to store unlimited amounts of data.
D.    S3 should be used to host a relational database.
E.    Objects are directly accessible via a URL.

Answer: CE
Explanation:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonCloudFront/latest/DeveloperGuide/private-content-restricting-access-to-s3.html

QUESTION 227
Per the AWS Acceptable Use Policy, penetration testing of EC2 instances:

A.    May be performed by AWS, and will be performed by AWS upon customer request.
B.    May be performed by AWS, and is periodically performed by AWS.
C.    Are expressly prohibited under all circumstances.
D.    May be performed by the customer on their own instances with prior authorization from AWS.
E.    May be performed by the customer on their own instances, only if performed from EC2 instances

Answer: D
Explanation:
http://aws.amazon.com/security/penetration-testing/

QUESTION 228
You are working with a customer who has 10 TB of archival data that they want to migrate to Amazon Glacier. The customer has a 1-Mbps connection to the Internet. Which service or feature provides the fastest method of getting the data into Amazon Glacier?

A.    Amazon Glacier multipart upload
B.    AWS Storage Gateway
C.    VM Import/Export
D.    AWS Import/Export

Answer: A
Explanation:
You can only perform an Amazon Glacier import from devices of 4 TB in size or smaller.
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/es_es/AWSImportExport/latest/DG/createGlacierimportjobs.html

QUESTION 229
How can you secure data at rest on an EBS volume?

A.    Attach the volume to an instance using EC2’s SSL interface.
B.    Write the data randomly instead of sequentially.
C.    Encrypt the volume using the S3 server-side encryption service.
D.    Create an IAM policy that restricts read and write access to the volume.
E.    Use an encrypted file system on top of the EBS volume.

Answer: E
Explanation:
https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/protect-your-data-with-new-ebs-encryption/

QUESTION 230
A customer needs to capture all client connection information from their load balancer every five minutes. The company wants to use this data for analyzing traffic patterns and troubleshooting their applications. Which of the following options meets the customer requirements?

A.    Enable AWS CloudTrail for the load balancer.
B.    Enable access logs on the load balancer.
C.    Install the Amazon CloudWatch Logs agent on the load balancer.
D.    Enable Amazon CloudWatch metrics on the load balancer.

Answer: B
Explanation:
Elastic Load Balancing access logs
The access logs for Elastic Load Balancing capture detailed information for all requests made to your load balancer and stores them as log files in the Amazon S3 bucket that you specify. Each log contains details such as the time a request was received, the client’s IP address, latencies, request path, and server responses. You can use these access logs to analyze traffic patterns and to troubleshoot your back-end applications. For more information, see Monitor Your Load Balancer Using Elastic Load Balancing Access Logs.

QUESTION 231
If you want to launch Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) instances and assign each instance a predetermined private IP address you should:

A.    Launch the instance from a private Amazon Machine Image (AMI).
B.    Assign a group of sequential Elastic IP address to the instances.
C.    Launch the instances in the Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC).
D.    Launch the instances in a Placement Group.
E.    Use standard EC2 instances since each instance gets a private Domain Name Service (DNS) already.

Answer: C
Explanation:
Each instance in a VPC has a default network interface (eth0) that is assigned the primary private IP address.

QUESTION 232
You need to configure an Amazon S3 bucket to serve static assets for your public-facing web application. Which methods ensure that all objects uploaded to the bucket are set to public read? Choose 2 answers

A.    Set permissions on the object to public read during upload.
B.    Configure the bucket ACL to set all objects to public read.
C.    Configure the bucket policy to set all objects to public read.
D.    Use AWS Identity and Access Management roles to set the bucket to public read.
E.    Amazon S3 objects default to public read, so no action is needed.

Answer: AC
Explanation:
https://aws.amazon.com/articles/5050
You can use ACLs to grant permissions to individual AWS accounts; however, it is strongly recommended that you do not grant public access to your bucket using an ACL.
So the recommended approach is create bucket policy, but not ACL.
Following link give you an example about how to make the bucket content public.
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/HostingWebsiteOnS3Setup.html#step2-add-bucket-policy-make-content-public

QUESTION 233
A company is storing data on Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3). The company’s security policy mandates that data is encrypted at rest. Which of the following methods can achieve this? Choose 3 answers

A.    Use Amazon S3 server-side encryption with AWS Key Management Service managed keys.
B.    Use Amazon S3 server-side encryption with customer-provided keys.
C.    Use Amazon S3 server-side encryption with EC2 key pair.
D.    Use Amazon S3 bucket policies to restrict access to the data at rest.
E.    Encrypt the data on the client-side before ingesting to Amazon S3 using their own master key.
F.    Use SSL to encrypt the data while in transit to Amazon S3.

Answer: ABE
Explanation:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/UsingKMSEncryption.html

QUESTION 234
Which procedure for backing up a relational database on EC2 that is using a set of RAlDed EBS volumes for storage minimizes the time during which the database cannot be written to and results in a consistent backup?

A.    1. Detach EBS volumes, 2. Start EBS snapshot of volumes, 3. Re-attach EBS volumes
B.    1. Stop the EC2 Instance. 2. Snapshot the EBS volumes
C.    1. Suspend disk I/O, 2. Create an image of the EC2 Instance, 3. Resume disk I/O
D.    1. Suspend disk I/O, 2. Start EBS snapshot of volumes, 3. Resume disk I/O
E.    1. Suspend disk I/O, 2. Start EBS snapshot of volumes, 3. Wait for snapshots to complete, 4. Resume disk I/O

Answer: B
Explanation:
https://aws.amazon.com/cn/premiumsupport/knowledge-center/snapshot-ebs-raid-array/
To create an “application-consistent” snapshot of your RAID array, stop applications from writing to the RAID array, and flush all caches to disk. Then ensure that the associated EC2 instance is no longer writing to the RAID array by taking steps such as freezing the file system, unmounting the RAID array, or *shutting down the associated EC2 instance*. After completing the steps to halt all I/O, take a snapshot of each EBS volume.
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/ebs-detaching-volume.html
You can detach an Amazon EBS volume from an instance explicitly or by terminating the instance. However, if the instance is running, you must first unmount the volume from the instance.”

QUESTION 235
A company needs to deploy virtual desktops to its customers in a virtual private cloud, leveraging existing security controls. Which set of AWS services and features will meet the company’s requirements?

A.    Virtual Private Network connection. AWS Directory Services, and ClassicLink
B.    Virtual Private Network connection. AWS Directory Services, and Amazon Workspaces
C.    AWS Directory Service, Amazon Workspaces, and AWS Identity and Access Management
D.    Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, and AWS Identity and Access Management

Answer: B
Explanation:
To enable integration, you need to ensure that your domain is reachable via an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud VPC (this could mean that Active Directory domain controllers for your domain are running on Amazon EC2 instances, or that they are reachable via a VPN connection and are located in your on-premises network).

QUESTION 236
After creating a new IAM user which of the following must be done before they can successfully make API calls?

A.    Add a password to the user.
B.    Enable Multi-Factor Authentication for the user.
C.    Assign a Password Policy to the user.
D.    Create a set of Access Keys for the user.

Answer: D
Explanation:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/IAM/latest/UserGuide/Using_SettingUpUser.html

QUESTION 237
Which of the following are valid statements about Amazon S3? Choose 2 answers

A.    S3 provides read-after-write consistency for any type of PUT or DELETE.
B.    Consistency is not guaranteed for any type of PUT or DELETE.
C.    A successful response to a PUT request only occurs when a complete object is saved.
D.    Partially saved objects are immediately readable with a GET after an overwrite PUT.
E.    S3 provides eventual consistency for overwrite PUTS and DELETES.

Answer: CE
Explanation:
http://api-portal.anypoint.mulesoft.com/amazon/api/amazon-s3-api/docs/concepts#DataConsistencyModel

QUESTION 238
You are configuring your company’s application to use Auto Scaling and need to move user state information. Which of the following AWS services provides a shared data store with durability and low latency?

A.    AWS ElastiCache Memcached
B.    Amazon Simple Storage Service
C.    Amazon EC2 instance storage
D.    Amazon DynamoDB

Answer: D
Explanation:
https://media.amazonwebservices.com/AWS_Storage_Options.pdf
To speed access to relevant data, many developers pair Amazon S3 with a database, such as Amazon DynamoDB or Amazon RDS. Amazon S3 stores the actual information, and the database serves as the repository for associated metadata (e.g., object name, size, keywords, and so on). Metadata in the database can easily be indexed and queried, making it very efficient to locate an object’s reference via a database query. This result can then be used to pinpoint and then retrieve the object itself from Amazon S3.

QUESTION 239
Which features can be used to restrict access to data in S3? Choose 2 answers

A.    Set an S3 ACL on the bucket or the object.
B.    Create a CloudFront distribution for the bucket.
C.    Set an S3 bucket policy.
D.    Enable IAM Identity Federation
E.    Use S3 Virtual Hosting

Answer: AC
Explanation:
Amazon S3 is secure by default. Only the bucket and object owners originally have access to Amazon S3 resources they create. Amazon S3 supports user authentication to control access to data. You can use access control mechanisms such as bucket policies and Access Control Lists (ACLs) to selectively grant permissions to users and groups of users. You can securely upload/download your data to Amazon S3 via SSL endpoints using the HTTPS protocol. If you need extra security you can use the Server Side Encryption (SSE) option or the Server Side Encryption with Customer-Provide Keys (SSE-C) option to encrypt data stored-at-rest. Amazon S3 provides the encryption technology for both SSE and SSE-C. Alternatively you can use your own encryption libraries to encrypt data before storing it in Amazon S3.
https://aws.amazon.com/s3/faqs/

QUESTION 240
Which of the following are characteristics of a reserved instance? Choose 3 answers

A.    It can be migrated across Availability Zones
B.    It is specific to an Amazon Machine Image (AMI)
C.    It can be applied to instances launched by Auto Scaling
D.    It is specific to an instance Type
E.    It can be used to lower Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of a system

Answer: ACE
Explanation:
You can use Auto Scaling or other AWS services to launch the On-Demand instances that use your Reserved Instance benefits. For information about launching On-Demand instances, see Launch Your Instance. For information about launching instances using Auto Scaling, see the Auto Scaling User Guide.
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/concepts-on-demand-reserved-instances.html
https://forums.aws.amazon.com/thread.jspa?threadID=56501

QUESTION 241
Which Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud feature can you query from within the instance to access instance properties?

A.    Instance user data
B.    Resource tags
C.    Instance metadata
D.    Amazon Machine Image

Answer: C
Explanation:
Although you can only access instance metadata and user data from within the instance itself, the data is not protected by cryptographic methods
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/ec2-instance-metadata.html#instancedata-data-retrieval

QUESTION 242
Which of the following requires a custom CloudWatch metric to monitor?

A.    Memory Utilization of an EC2 instance
B.    CPU Utilization of an EC2 instance
C.    Disk usage activity of an EC2 instance
D.    Data transfer of an EC2 instance

Answer: A
Explanation:
CloudWatch relies on the information provided by this hypervisor, which can only see the most hardware-sided part of the instance’s status, including CPU usage (but not load), total memory size (but not memory usage), number of I/O operations on the hard disks (but not it’s partition layout and space usage) and network traffic (but not the processes generating it).

QUESTION 243
You are tasked with setting up a Linux bastion host for access to Amazon EC2 instances running in your VPC. Only clients connecting from the corporate external public IP address 72.34.51.100 should have SSH access to the host. Which option will meet the customer requirement?

A.    Security Group Inbound Rule: Protocol -TCP. Port Range -22, Source 72.34.51.100/32
B.    Security Group Inbound Rule: Protocol -UDP, Port Range -22, Source 72.34.51.100/32
C.    Network ACL Inbound Rule: Protocol -UDP, Port Range -22, Source 72.34.51.100/32
D.    Network ACL Inbound Rule: Protocol -TCP, Port Range-22, Source 72.34.51.100/0

Answer: A

QUESTION 244
A customer needs corporate IT governance and cost oversight of all AWS resources consumed by its divisions. The divisions want to maintain administrative control of the discrete AWS resources they consume and keep those resources separate from the resources of other divisions. Which of the following options, when used together will support the autonomy/control of divisions while enabling corporate IT to maintain governance and cost oversight?
Choose 2 answers

A.    Use AWS Consolidated Billing and disable AWS root account access for the child accounts.
B.    Enable IAM cross-account access for all corporate IT administrators in each child account.
C.    Create separate VPCs for each division within the corporate IT AWS account.
D.    Use AWS Consolidated Billing to link the divisions’ accounts to a parent corporate account.
E.    Write all child AWS CloudTrail and Amazon CloudWatch logs to each child account’s Amazon S3 ‘Log’ bucket.

Answer: BD
Explanation:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/IAM/latest/UserGuide/tutorial_cross-account-with-roles.html
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/awsaccountbilling/latest/aboutv2/consolidated-billing.html

QUESTION 245
You run an ad-supported photo sharing website using S3 to serve photos to visitors of your site. At some point you find out that other sites have been linking to the photos on your site, causing loss to your business. What is an effective method to mitigate this?

A.    Remove public read access and use signed URLs with expiry dates.
B.    Use CloudFront distributions for static content.
C.    Block the IPs of the offending websites in Security Groups.
D.    Store photos on an EBS volume of the web server.

Answer: A
Explanation:
A signed URL includes additional information, for example, an expiration date and time, that gives you more control over access to your content.

QUESTION 246
You are working with a customer who is using Chef configuration management in their data center. Which service is designed to let the customer leverage existing Chef recipes in AWS?

A.    Amazon Simple Workflow Service
B.    AWS Elastic Beanstalk
C.    AWS CloudFormation
D.    AWS OpsWorks

Answer: D
Explanation:
http://aws.amazon.com/opsworks/

QUESTION 247
An Auto-Scaling group spans 3 AZs and currently has 4 running EC2 instances.
When Auto Scaling needs to terminate an EC2 instance by default, AutoScaling will:
Choose 2 answers

A.    Allow at least five minutes for Windows/Linux shutdown scripts to complete, before terminating the instance.
B.    Terminate the instance with the least active network connections. If multiple instances meet this criterion, one will be randomly selected.
C.    Send an SNS notification, if configured to do so.
D.    Terminate an instance in the AZ which currently has 2 running EC2 instances.
E.    Randomly select one of the 3 AZs, and then terminate an instance in that AZ.

Answer: CD
Explanation:
Auto Scaling determines whether there are instances in multiple Availability Zones. If so, it selects the Availability Zone with the most instances and at least one instance that is not protected from scale in.
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AutoScaling/latest/DeveloperGuide/AutoScalingBehavior.InstanceTermination.html

QUESTION 248
When an EC2 instance that is backed by an S3-based AMI is terminated, what happens to the data on the root volume?

A.    Data is automatically saved as an EBS snapshot.
B.    Data is automatically saved as an EBS volume.
C.    Data is unavailable until the instance is restarted.
D.    Data is automatically deleted.

Answer: D
Explanation:
Using the legacy S3 based AMIs, either of the above terminates the instance and you lose all local and ephemeral storage (boot disk and /mnt) forever. Hope you remembered to save the important stuff elsewhere!

QUESTION 249
In order to optimize performance for a compute cluster that requires low inter-node latency, which of the following feature should you use?

A.    Multiple Availability Zones
B.    AWS Direct Connect
C.    EC2 Dedicated Instances
D.    Placement Groups
E.    VPC private subnets

Answer: D
Explanation:
A placement group is a logical grouping of instances within a single Availability Zone. Using placement groups enables applications to participate in a low-latency, 10 Gigabits per second (Gbps) network.
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/placement-groups.html

QUESTION 250
You have an environment that consists of a public subnet using Amazon VPC and 3 instances that are running in this subnet. These three instances can successfully communicate with other hosts on the Internet. You launch a fourth instance in the same subnet, using the same AMI and security group configuration you used for the others, but find that this instance cannot be accessed from the internet.
What should you do to enable Internet access?

A.    Deploy a NAT instance into the public subnet.
B.    Assign an Elastic IP address to the fourth instance.
C.    Configure a publically routable IP Address in the host OS of the fourth instance.
D.    Modify the routing table for the public subnet.

Answer: B
Explanation:
You launched your instance into a public subnet – a subnet that has a route to an Internet gateway. However, the instance in your subnet also needs a public IP address to be able to communicate with the Internet. By default, an instance in a nondefault VPC is not assigned a public IP address. In this step, you’ll allocate an Elastic IP address to your account, and then associate it with your instance.

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